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Principle and classification of demulsifiers
Time:2021-07-08 09:57:44
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Principle and classification of demulsifiers

Demulsifiers have been developed for nearly 100 years, and the earliest record of demulsification using demulsifiers was published in 1914. Demulsifiers have been used in oil fields since the 1920s, and researchers have begun to use surfactants as demulsifiers for crude oil. There are few researches in demulsifier industry in China, especially demulsifier with new chemical structure. Secondly, there are fewer single agent varieties of demulsifiers, and the development of new demulsifiers is more difficult, and the compound type of demulsifier can be demulsified at low temperature, and the dosage is less, the effect is fast, so the compound type of demulsifier is used more in the oil field. And the current domestic demulsifier research is mostly compound demulsifier research. Ande technology invested a lot of money, after years of field experiments, research and development of a number of categories of products, a large number of suitable for most of the domestic oil fields, and obtained a number of patents.

Action principle

Because some solids are insoluble in water, when one or more of these solids exist in large quantities in aqueous solutions, under the agitation of hydraulic or external forces, these solids can exist in the state of emulsification in water, forming emulsion. In theory, the system is unstable, but if there are some surfactants (such as soil particles), makes the emulsion condition is very serious, even two phase is difficult to separate, is the most typical in oil-water separation of oil-water mixture and mixture of water and oil in the wastewater treatment in the two phases formed relatively stable water-in-oil or oil-in-water structure, Its theoretical basis is "double electric layer structure". In this case, some agents are put in to destroy the stable double electric layer structure and stabilize the emulsion system, so as to achieve the purpose of two phase separation. The agents used to break the emulsification are called demulsifiers.

The main purpose

Demulsifier is a kind of surface active substance, which can destroy the structure of the emulsified liquid, so as to achieve the purpose of separating the phases in the emulsion. Crude oil demulsification refers to using the chemical action of demulsifier to remove the oil and water in the emulsified oil-water mixture, so as to achieve the purpose of crude oil dehydration, so as to ensure the water content standard of crude oil exported. One of the most simple and effective methods for the effective separation of organic phase and water phase is to use demulsifier to eliminate emulsification and form an emulsified interface with a certain strength to achieve two-phase separation. However, different demulsifiers have different demulsifying capacities for organic phase. The performance of demulsifiers directly affects the separation effect of two phases. Penicillin production process, is an important procedure is to use organic solvents such as butyl acetate extraction of penicillin from the penicillin fermentation liquor, such as fermentation liquor containing protein, carbohydrate, the mycelium of complex material, the extraction of organic facies of water phase interface is not clear, the emulsification of a certain intensity area, a great influence on the finished product yield. Therefore, demulsifier must be used for demulsification to eliminate emulsification and achieve rapid and effective separation of the two phases.